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Abstract Edisi 169 Agustus 2008

Abstract Edisi 169 Agustus 2008

5 Years of AI in Indonesia

The cases of AI (Avian Influenza) which was firstly reported in Indonesia since August 2003, and after that the disease quickly spread throughout and the provinces in Java and then most part of Indonesia.
After five years against this exotic disease, by vaccination program, sanitation as well as hygienic measures poultry farmers adapted to this kind of condition. Poultry industry is really prospective, since the product are needed by the people and the demand is continuously increasing.
To face the challenging situation to enable for survival, poultry farmers should be smart, creative, innovative and properly implementing technology development. We should be caution to AI and maximizing preventive measures, but we should not consider the disease as the constraint for developing poultry industry in Indonesia.
Some of farmers are aware that the prospect of poultry farming is still favourable, but they desperate with increasing production cost as the price of farming input specially feed is continuously increasing, higher than the increase of poultry product price.

Role of Poultry Market in the Spread of AI

Based on the WHO (World Health Organization) report up to may 2008, total cases up AI (Avian Influenza) in the world are 383 cases with totality 241 people. The cases of AI in Indonesia is the highest, as total cases reach 135 cases cause human victim, the death of 110 people.
Referring to the workshop on live bird market / traditional market, sponsored by FBPI (National Committee on Avian Influenza), USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) and CIVAS (Centre for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies), There are four critical points in poultry distribution chain, namely poultry farming, poultry collecting places, poultry slaughter houses as well as products and live birds market.
The whole market in Asian countries is centre for social and economic activity, but the markets are also able as source of zoonotic disease spreading. The first cases of AI in Hong Kong on 1997 happened in poultry farming and poultry traditional market, it is the first reported H5N1 cases, the fatality of 6 people in 18 cases.
The condition which is found in live birds market:
- No routine animal health inspection to live birds and their products
- Poor bio security
- No program for cleaning and disinfection on transportation vehicles, equipment baskets and buildings.
- No clear border between collective places, slaughtering and selling of poultry and their product with other comodities.
- Source, origin and animal health status of poultry and their products is not clear.
- Poultry transportation vehicles (motor cycles) are not fit with animal welfare standard.
- No special door for entrance and exit of live bird.
- Collecting places and poultry slaughter houses are not fulfill hygienic standard.
- Selling of multi species of bird (native chicken, duck, commercial, chicken, etc)
- Selling of live bird, brought by consumers
- No regulation for arrangement of live bird and their product in market
- Poor personal hygiene
- Not adequate awareness of sellers and consumer to the healthy products.
If AI eradication is still to be priority, poultry market should be properly arranged to fulfill the standard through establish the models of poultry market

Chicken Egg Price

Increase of production cost, caused by higher price of feed raw materials will directly influence cost of good produced.The components to form cost of egg produced, namely: feed, operational cost, pullet depreciation, infrastructure and investment depreciation, marketing cost, medicaments and others. The problem is how poultry farmers will be able to make lower cost of egg produced in order reaching competitiveness in layer farming and to get profit.
Ideal farming in the perspective of layer farming management is “low cost – high performance”, the enterprise usually having slender organization, good team work with order job description and no interval conflict.
To reach efficiency, the ratio should be well management, namely:
- Population Ratio, comparison between productive layer and total workers, the ration should be less than 2.000 head of productive layer for each worker.
- Operational Cost Ratio, to minimize fixed cost and maximizing variable cost
- Feed Conversion Ratio, to save feed consumption without sacrificing productivity
- Layer Productivity Ratio, referring to proper and complete recording, egg production should be able to reach 20 kg/head in 76-80 weeks of age

To Minimize Meat Importation

The dependency on imported meat is a big problem in Indonesia, since local products are only able to supply 72% of the demand. According to Dr Tjeppy D Soedjana, Director General of Livestock Services (DGLS) in official opening of “Socialization on Acceleration of Meat Self Supporting Achievement” in Bandung, the desired condition in 2010 is supply of imported meat should less than 10%. The Government had allocated the fund to construct biogas, meat kiosk, integration of mixed farming, conservation of livestock farming area, conservation of river flow area, field training as well as irrigation of surface soil.
This program will be implemented in 16 districts and 2 cities in West Java province. The constraint of this program is lack of technical human resources and infrastructure in the field.

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